Lake Candia

Last DEIMS-SDR update: 30.10.2023

Contact: Marzia Ciampittiello
Operating organization: CNR – Water Research Institute (IRSA)
Funding agency:


Lake Candia is a small and shallow lake, located in North-Westerm Italy. The mean elevation is 226 m a.s.l., the surface is 1,5 km², the max depth 7,7 m, the mean depth 4,7 m and the volume 0,007 km3. Lake Candia has suffered during its evolution a natural increase of its trophic state, undergoing a process of eutrophication culminated with a marked worsening of his ecological quality since the '60s. In the late '70s and mid '80s, this ecosystem was affected by fish mortality episodes and by the enormous development of emerged and submerged aquatic macrophytes. The systematic scientific study of Lake Candia began in 1985, when the CNR of Verbania was asked to perform a limnological research with the aim to propose a possible restoration intervention. In addition to the control of pollution sources from the basin, environmentally sound technologies were applied to reduce the effects of eutrophication, such as biomanipulation of the aquatic food chain and macrophyte control and management.The experiment conducted in Lake Candia has shown that significant improvements can be achieved through the management of a specific key components of the biocenosis of the lake. Data collection activities on hydrochemistry, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish fauna, macrophytes, as well as physical limnology, took place from 1986 until 2012. To date, only hydrometeorological data collection (precipitation, air temperature, wind, solar radiation and lake levels), started in 1987, is active. LTER specific topics are: Long-term analysis of changes in community functional diversity of phyto-and zooplankton. Evaluation of the lake ecosystem response to short and intense rainfall events, in relation to the increase of nutrients input through runoff.

Aerial view

Hydro-meteorological station

Bushes and shrubs and poplars plantations

Reeds and water chestunts

Basin around the lake

Human activities

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